Patellar luxation is a common small dog health problem in which the kneecap becomes dislocated. This condition may be caused by genetic malformation of bones and is more common in smaller breeds and female dogs. It can cause lameness in hind legs and skipping when walking. In severe cases, surgery may be needed to remove the patellar luxation.

Heart murmur

A murmur is a sound produced by the heart. These sounds are caused by leaky valves within the heart. The valves separate the four chambers of the heart. If any of them becomes damaged, they are no longer able to form a tight seal, and blood flows back through them. This abnormal blood flow causes a murmur, which is also known as a murmur of regurgitation.

A heart murmur can be a warning sign of serious underlying medical problems. Your veterinarian can help you understand what’s happening with your pet and how to best care for it. Treatment depends on the type of murmur your dog has, as well as its cause. Heart murmur treatment can include taking your pet to the vet for additional diagnostic tests, such as an echocardiogram.

A veterinarian can prescribe medication or perform surgery to treat your pet’s heart murmur. A vet can also prescribe diet or exercise restrictions based on the severity of the murmur. In some cases, the heart murmur goes away on its own, especially if the dog is a young puppy. However, in many cases, a murmur is a symptom of a larger underlying issue, and the underlying problem must be resolved for it to go away.


Hypoglycemia is a serious health problem for small dogs. In severe cases, your pet may become unconscious and need immediate veterinary attention. In this case, administering sugary liquids to your pet may help revive him. Depending on the severity of the condition, your vet may recommend CPR.

A veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam and review your dog’s history to confirm the diagnosis. He may also take a blood test and perform a routine biochemistry and serum tests. Your veterinarian will then discuss treatment options with you, including lifestyle and diet. Sometimes, an intravenous glucose drip or oral glucose is used to correct hypoglycemia.

The first step in diagnosing hypoglycemia in small dogs is to identify the exact cause of the problem. If your dog has diabetes, he may be asymptomatic. The symptoms of the disease are a result of counter-regulatory mechanisms.

Patellar luxation

There are many treatments for patellar luxation in dogs. For grade I and grade II luxations, medical management includes pain medications and anti-inflammatory drugs, weight management, and exercise restriction. Surgery is an option for dogs with grade III and higher luxations, and can correct structural damage inside the knee. Surgery can also deepen the groove in the femur to reduce pain and lameness.

Patellar luxation is a common health problem for small breeds. A veterinarian can diagnose the problem by palpating the stifle joints and moving the knees through their range of motion. If the patellar luxation is severe, the veterinarian may order X-rays to assess the damage to the joint. Radiographs of the knee joint can also reveal if arthritis is associated with the joint.

Patellar luxation can occur in any breed, but it is more likely in certain breeds than others. Dogs with subclinical grade I medial patellar luxation may require conservative treatment, but dogs with grade III and IV patellar luxation require surgical correction to restore normal quadriceps function. Surgery is associated with an increased risk of complication, but the prognosis is usually good.

Osteochondrosis dissecans

Osteochondrosis dissecants is a rare condition that affects small dogs. If left untreated, it can lead to osteoarthritis in the affected joints. Early treatment may be effective in reversing the symptoms of osteochondritis dissecans. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary.

Osteochondrosis dissecan is a developmental disorder that affects the cartilage. This condition develops when cartilage cells fail to mature at the same rate as surrounding tissue. This abnormal development results in thickened cartilage that is more susceptible to damage. When the cartilage is injured, it cracks and lifts off the bone, leading to osteoarthritis.

The cause of osteochondritis dissecans is unknown. However, excessive calcium in the diet is known to exacerbate the condition. A balanced calcium intake can lower the risk of osteochondritis dissecans and other developmental orthopedic conditions. Though the exact cause of osteochondritis dissecans is not yet known, it is believed to be caused by genetics, trauma to the joint, and hormonal imbalances.

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

Small dogs are at increased risk of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease, a type of hip degeneration that seems to have a genetic component. Symptoms of the condition include a limp and unwillingness to bear weight on a leg. Over time, the hip bone begins to deteriorate, leading to small fractures and the formation of scar tissue. The affected leg also becomes extremely sensitive to handling.

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease, also called Avascular Necrosis of the Femur Head, is characterized by a major disruption in the blood supply to the femur bone. Blood clots lodge in the vessels supplying the femur, causing the tissue to die. Although the cause is unknown, the disease ultimately results in the collapse of the femoral head. Although a small number of dogs develop the disease, there is a high likelihood that the disease is genetic.

Surgery is an option for dogs with the disease. While this type of surgery does not cure the condition, it can restore pain-free mobility. Surgery to remove the ball and neck of the femur is one of the most common forms of treatment. The procedure is generally done by a specialist in referral practices.

Skin allergies

Dogs suffering from skin allergies are at risk of chronic illnesses. Skin allergies generally begin between the ages of one and six years, although some dogs may show symptoms for years. Symptoms are mild in the early years, but can progress to serious disease over time. Treatment involves reducing or eliminating the allergen from the dog’s environment.

The first stage of treatment is to determine the cause of the problem. A veterinarian can make a diagnosis based on a skin sample. In some cases, medications can help cure the problem. Antibiotics, antifungal, and anti-inflammation medications can help treat the skin infection. In some cases, the cause of the skin disorder may be a parasite or a disease triggered by fleas.

Treatments for skin allergies may include cortisone products, which can reduce the itchiness. However, cortisone products should be used carefully, because they can have serious side effects. They may increase the dog’s thirst and urination, lead to diabetes, and reduce the animal’s ability to fight infection. For severe cases, a dog may need long-term, low-dose alternate-day therapy.

Fragile bones

Fragile bones can be a very serious health problem for your dog. While most cases of brittle bones in dogs heal on their own, if you suspect that your pet has a fractured bone, it’s important to take him to the veterinarian for evaluation. Fragile bones in small dogs are often treatable. Veterinary doctors can also do tests to test the healing process.

A vet will usually suggest physical therapy and cold packs to the affected area to aid the healing process. Your dog will need a few weeks to heal completely and may need a cast. You should try not to allow your dog to run, jump, or play until the bone has fully healed. You can also try to massage the affected area gently.

A veterinarian can perform an x-ray to determine the exact cause of the fractured bone. Your pet may also be prescribed pain relievers and corticosteroids to alleviate any discomfort and inflammation. The veterinarian may prescribe a soft-food diet to help your dog cope with the condition.


When your dog is suffering from pancreatitis, your veterinarian will try to determine the cause and recommend an appropriate treatment. He or she will likely prescribe a medication or put your dog on a prescription food to help speed the recovery process. Your vet may also prescribe a probiotic for your dog. It’s important to follow the veterinarian’s advice closely to reduce the risk of relapse.

A blood test will reveal whether your dog has pancreatitis. This can be done right in the veterinary clinic and results will be available the same day. Other tests, such as an abdominal imaging study, may also be done. These tests will help the veterinarian determine the exact location of your pet’s pancreas and determine if there are any other underlying diseases or infections. During the recovery process, you may have to administer intravenous fluids. This treatment is important to help the body flush out toxins and rehydrate the body.

A veterinarian will perform a physical examination and ask you questions about your pet’s symptoms. He will also ask about your dog’s diet, any medications that your dog is taking, and any other symptoms you may have noticed. Your veterinarian will also do laboratory tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing your dog’s symptoms. If you suspect pancreatitis, your veterinarian may also order specific blood tests for confirmation. These tests are called canine pancreatic lipase and can help your veterinarian make a correct diagnosis.